Тусламж:Эх сурвалж

Өгүүллэгийн агуулгад ашигласан материалын болон тухайн агуулгыг тэр чигээр нь эш татан авсан бол түүнийхээ эх сурвалжийг тэмдэглэн оруулах хэрэгтэй. Үүний тулд <ref> ба </ref> гэсэн тэмдэгтүүдийн хооронд бичиж буй агуулгын өгүүлбэр дотор оруулна. Энэхүү тэмдэгт нь тухайн үг эсвэл өгүүлбэрийн төгсгөлд дээр байрласан дөрвөлжин хаалт бүхий тоон утгыг харуулах (жишээлбэл[1]) бөгөөд өгүүллэгийн төгсгөлд холбоос болгон буцааж харуулдаг. Эш татан авсан хэсгийн гарчигт тогтсон нэршил байхгүй ч ихэнхдээ Эшлэл, Эх сурвалж гэх үгүүдийг хэрэглэж байна.

Эх сурвалжийг тэмдэглэхЗасварлах

Эх кодоор бичигдсэн текст (жишээ) Өгүүллэгт харагдах байдал буюу үр дүн

Монгол Улсад хэрэглэгдэх төрийн албан ёсны хэл нь монгол хэл юм.<ref>[https://legalinfo.mn/mn/detail/486 ''Монгол Улсын Хууль - Төрийн албан ёсны хэлний тухай.''] Эрх зүйн мэдээллийн нэгдсэн систем. Хандсан 2022 оны зургаадугаар сарын 8.</ref>

== Эх сурвалж ==
<references />

Монгол Улсад хэрэглэгдэх төрийн албан ёсны хэл нь монгол хэл юм.[1]

Эх сурвалж
  1. Монгол Улсын Хууль - Төрийн албан ёсны хэлний тухай. Эрх зүйн мэдээллийн нэгдсэн систем. Хандсан 2022 оны зургаадугаар сарын 8.


Загвар:VE documentation The Footnotes system shows two elements on the page:

  • A Footnote marker is displayed in the article's content as a bracketed, superscripted number, letter, or word. Examples shown respectively are: Загвар:Dummy refЗагвар:Dummy refЗагвар:Dummy ref. This footnote label is linked to the full footnote. Clicking on the footnote marker jumps the page down to the footnote and highlights the citation. If you are using the desktop site and have Javascript enabled, then hovering your cursor over a footnote marker (or touching it on touch devices) will show a pop-up box containing the footnote.
  • A Footnote displays the full citation for the source. Together the footnotes are displayed in an ordered list wherever the reference list markup {{reflist}} is placed. Each entry begins with the footnote label in plain text. The entire reference list is formatted in a slightly smaller font.
Each successive footnote label is automatically incremented. Thus the first footnote marker would be Загвар:Dummy ref, the second would be Загвар:Dummy ref and so on. Custom labels are also incremented: Загвар:Dummy refЗагвар:Dummy refЗагвар:Dummy ref, Загвар:Dummy ref Загвар:Dummy ref Загвар:Dummy ref.
For a single use footnote, the label is followed by a caret (^) that is a backlink to the matching footnote marker. For example:

Загвар:Dummy footnote

If a named footnote is used in the text multiple times, then the footnote has multiple backlinks shown as letters:

Загвар:Dummy footnote

Clicking on the backlink or pressing Загвар:Keypress returns to the footnote marker.

Footnotes in actionЗасварлах

The superscript numeral "1" in square brackets at the end of this sentence is an example of a footnote marker.[1]

  1. This is a footnote that contains a citation or note.

Footnotes: the basicsЗасварлах

To create the footnote marker, determine the point in the page content where the marker is desired and enter the markup with the citation or note inside the <ref></ref> tags. For example:


The {{reflist}} template will be explained in the next section.

The content inside the <ref></ref> will show in the reference list. The ref tags can be added anywhere a citation or note is needed. There must be content inside the tags, else an error will show.

Where to place ref tagsЗасварлах

Ref tags should follow any punctuation (usually a period), not precede it; see WP:REFPUNC. There should be no space between the punctuation and the tag:


Formatting ref tagsЗасварлах

The content of the ref tags can be formatted using most wiki markup or HTML markup, although techniques such as the pipe trick and template substitution will not work in footnotes. For example:


The ref tag content may also contain an internal or external link:


Загвар:MediaWiki URL rules

Reference lists: the basicsЗасварлах

Once any number of footnotes have been inserted into the content, the reference list must be generated. For the basic reference list, add {{reflist}} wherever the list is desired. Once the page is published and viewed, the footnotes will be automatically generated and numbered and the reference list will be generated. The main reference list is placed in a separate section, usually titled "References", "Notes" or the like.



  • In some cases, a page has more than one reference list. Until 2014, multiple uses of {{reflist}} on the same page required use of a |close= parameter; that bug has been fixed and the|close= parameter may safely be removed.
  • When editing, <references></references> may be seen instead of {{reflist}}. This will automatically display the references in multiple columns, but <references></references> does not offer the other advanced features of {{reflist}}.

Footnotes: using a source more than onceЗасварлах

You can cite the same source more than once on a page by using named footnotes. The syntax to define a named footnote is:

<ref name="name">content</ref>

To invoke the named footnote:

<ref name="name"></ref>

Загвар:Refname rules

Note that the colon-followed-by-numeral names, like ":0", are currently generated by default in VisualEditor.


The actual name used can be almost anything, but it is recommended that it have a connection to the citation or note. A common practice is to use the author-year or publisher-year for the reference name. This helps editors remember the name, by associating it with the information that is visible to the reader.

Note that the footnote labels are incremented in the order they are used, and that they use the same label when reused, thus the labels can seem out of order: Загвар:Markup

When using both names and groups, the syntax is:

<ref group="groupname" name="name">Content</ref>

Care should be taken when deleting references to avoid creating a cite error. See Avoiding common mistakes.

Reference lists: columnsЗасварлах

When using <references></references> or {{reflist}}, the list can be split into columns. The <references></references> tag provides a default column width of 30 em. {{Reflist}} can be used to set a different column width:

{{reflist|xxem}}, where xx is the column width in em.

The number of columns will automatically be adjusted to the width of the display. It should be used only when necessary, as both the tag and the template have built-in auto-formatting capabilities providing a useful default display in most scenarios.

The set columns feature is now deprecated in favor of the option described above, which is better suited to flexible formatting for a variety of display screen sizes, ranging from mobile phones and tablets to wide-screen "cinema" displays. Forcing a fixed number of columns has been disabled in mobile view.

The number of columns to use is up to the editor, but some major practices include:

For example: Using {{Reflist|30em}} will create columns with a minimum width of 30 em, Загвар:Markup

List-defined referencesЗасварлах

Үндсэн өгүүлэл: Help:List-defined references

Some or all of the footnotes can also be defined within the reference section/list, and invoked in the page content. This keeps those citations in one central location for easier maintenance and avoids cluttering the text. This is purely a source code change – the actual display of the citation in the text to a reader is unaffected. For a more detailed evaluation of this method, see WP:LDRHOW. The syntax is:

<ref name="name1">Content</ref>
<ref name="name2">Content</ref>
<ref name="name...n">Content</ref>

or, alternatively,

<ref name="name1">Content</ref>
<ref name="name2">Content</ref>
<ref name="name...n">Content</ref>

The footnote markers are included as usual for a named footnote. For example:


The references will be numbered, and appear in the output, in the order that they are first referred to in the content, regardless of their order within the list. All references in reference list must be referenced in the content, otherwise an error message will be shown.

Note that when you use the visual editor, you will not be able to add, remove, or change list-defined references.

Footnotes: embedding referencesЗасварлах

Explanatory notes may need to be referenced. Because of limitations in the Загвар:Cite.php software, reference tags cannot be nested; that is, a set of <ref></ref> tags cannot be placed inside another pair of <ref></ref> tags. Attempting to do so will result in a cite error.

The templates {{r}} and {{refn}} can be used to nest references. The markup is:

{{refn|group=group|name=name|content}} or
{{r|group=group|name=name|refn=content}} or
{{r|g=group|n=name|r=content}} (shorter)

name and group being optional parameters. The content may include <ref></ref> tags or another {{r}} template.

The other templates listed below in Predefined groups are variants of {{refn}} that include a styled group and have a matching styled reference list template.


Using {{refn}}Засварлах


Using {{r}}Засварлах


The use of the magic word #tag:ref is valid, but the sequence of parameters is invariant and nonintuitive. {{r}} as well as {{refn}} and its variants use this markup internally.


Footnotes: groupsЗасварлах

Sometimes it is useful to group the footnotes into separate lists, for example to separate explanatory notes from references, or to list references for tables, image captions, infoboxes and navboxes. The sequence of footnote labels is independent in each group.

The syntax to define a footnote with a group is:

<ref group=groupname>Content</ref>

The footnote marker group name must be enclosed in quotes if the group name includes a space, else a cite error will occur, otherwise quotes are optional.

The syntax for the reference list with a group is:


The reference list group name does not need to be enclosed in quotes.

Example: Загвар:Markup

Note that the footnote labels in the reference list show only the numbers and not the group name.

When using both names and groups, the syntax is:

<ref group="groupname" name="name">Content</ref>

For the repeated note:

<ref group="groupname" name="name"></ref>

Footnotes: predefined groupsЗасварлах

technical details тухай Help:Cite link labels өгүүллээс үзнэ үү.
Shortened footnotes with explanatory footnotes тухай Help:Shortened footnotes#Explanatory notes өгүүллээс үзнэ үү.

There are several predefined groups that can have a reference list styled so that the label (a superscripted character within square brackets, e.g., Загвар:Dummy ref) of an explanatory note or citation (aka footnote, reference) matches and links to the note marker label located in the main text and the label in front of the note's text in the appropriate group's list. There can be more than one of these groups' lists in the Notes, References and other similarly purposed sections.

These predefined note and citation groups have templates that make the wikitext markup simpler. These templates also allow a standard reference to be inserted, so that an explanatory note can have a reference, or citations can be nested.

Note: If the note's text has a reference name that is used more than once, the labels will still match, but the clickable alpha characters that toggle the note's display will be next to the note's label, with links to the multiple locations of its marker in the main text. See WP:REFNAME and the first point below in § Issues.

Template use by reference group typeЗасварлах

Group type Footnote marker template
or markup
Reference list
Sample labels
none by default, but optionally any <ref></ref> {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
{{r}} (for nested references)
{{refn}} (for nested references)
lower-alpha {{efn}}
a b c d e f g h i j
upper-alpha {{efn-ua}} {{notelist-ua}} A B C D E F G H I J
lower-roman {{efn-lr}} {{notelist-lr}} i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
upper-roman {{efn-ur}} {{notelist-ur}} I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
lower-greek {{efn-lg}} {{notelist-lg}} α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ
note {{NoteTag}} {{NoteFoot}} note 1 note 2 note 3
  • {{efn}} supports |name= and |group=, which work the same as the parameters in <ref></ref> (see, for instance, the 3rd and 4th examples below). Do not enclose values in quotes.
  • {{notelist}} supports the |colwidth=, |refs=, and |group= parameters, which work the same as the parameters in {{reflist}}. Do not enclose values in quotes.

In these examples, the footnote labels match between the footnote marker and the reference list:



Загвар:Markup Note: With named references you only need to add the details once. For each use after the first you just need to re-use the reference name. Doing this will not cause the inline superscript to display a custom name.



  • Multiple backlink labels (see WP:REFNAME) are always styled as lower-alpha. This can be confusing when {{efn}} is used. See the note in the introduction of this section, above.
  • The entries in the reference list will show the default decimal styling if:
    • The value for |group= in {{reflist}} or <references></references> does not exactly match one of the predefined values; use {{efn}} or variant as |group= will not be needed.
    • The value for |group= in {{reflist}} or <references></references> is enclosed by quotes; use {{efn}} or variant as |group= will not be needed.
    • {{reflist}} is indented with the Загвар:Code markup.
    • <references></references> is used instead of {{reflist}}
  • The entries in the reference list will have no styling if:
    • A reference is included in {{navbox}} or one of the variants and the style is set to bodyclass=hlist; to resolve this, replace the style with listclass=hlist.
  • If the note text contains an "=" sign, precede the note text with |1=, like this: {{efn|name=fn1|1=Very long footnote with an equation, 2+2=4}}

Reference lists: automatically generatedЗасварлах

Үндсэн өгүүлэл: Help:Automatically generated reference list

A page with <ref></ref> tags but no reference list markup used to display an error, except on talk and user pages. In recent versions of Wikipedia, the error no longer appears; instead an automatically generated reference list (AGRL) is displayed at the bottom of the page.

Compared to the reference lists on properly formatted pages, an AGRL can be confusing to both readers and editors. But it is easily corrected by adding reference list markup such as the following. Add it at the position where the reference list would normally appear.


On talk pages, the {{reflist-talk}} template can be used to add a reference list to a specific discussion.

Footnotes: page numbersЗасварлах

Үндсэн өгүүлэл: Help:References and page numbers

Suppose you would like to cite one book, but different facts appear on different pages. You would like to cite the book again and again, but point each fact to the proper page. Suppose one fact is on page 8, a different fact on page 12, a third fact on page 18, a fourth fact on page 241. You could put a line in the "pages" parameter saying "see pages 8, 12, 18, 241" but a fact-checker might have to check all of them before figuring out the right one. Or, you could duplicate the entire citation for the book in each instance, but that would be redundant.

One common approach is to use shortened citations. The long citation to support the shortened citations can either be placed as a bullet point in a separate References section after the Footnotes section; or it can be placed in the first footnote to cite the source (with the initial relevant page number[s]). The remaining footnotes will use shortened citations (these usually contain the author's last name, the date of publication, and the relevant page number[s]).

A less common approach is to attach a {{rp|8}} right after the footnote marker and replace the "8" with the appropriate page number. For example:


{{r}} compactly combines the functions of <ref> and {{rp}}: {{r|Schudson}} is equivalent to <ref name="Schudson"/> and {{r|Schudson|p=241}} is equivalent to <ref name="Schudson"/>{{rp|241}}.

Previewing editsЗасварлах

When you edit a single section of a page, the footnotes list will be visible when you preview your edits under the heading "Preview of references", although you will still not be able to see named references whose definition is outside the section you are editing.

Tools that can be used are the user:js/ajaxPreview or User:Anomie/ajaxpreview.js scripts or the wikEd gadget.


Үндсэн өгүүлэл: Wikipedia:RefToolbar/2.0
Using the citation toolbar to name the first reference.
Using the citation toolbar to insert additional references to the first source.

You can use the citation toolbar to name references. When you first create a reference, you can enter a value in the "Ref name" box. When you want to reuse this reference, click the "Named references" button on the citation toolbar and choose which reference you would like to insert.

Issues and limitationsЗасварлах

Flagging inadequate referencingЗасварлах

  • The template {{Refimprove}} should be added to articles where there are some, but insufficient, inline citations to support the material currently in the article. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP sources}} instead.
  • The template {{Unreferenced}} should be added to articles with no references at all. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP unsourced}} instead.
  • The template {{Unreferenced section}} is for individual sections that have no citations in articles that have at least one citation somewhere else. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP unsourced section}} instead.
  • The template {{Medref}} is specifically for articles needing additional medical references.

See alsoЗасварлах

Загвар:Wikipedia referencing Загвар:Help navigation