"Усны эрчим хүч"-ны өөр хувилбарууд

 
== Ерөнхий аргачлал ==
[[File:Sala de turbinas.jpg|thumb|300px|TurbineНихуилес rowУЦС-ын atмашины Losзал, Nihuiles Power Station inМендоза, [[Mendoza, Argentina|MendozaАргентин]], Argentina.]]
 
[[Image:Hydroelectric dam.svg|thumb|300px|CrossБоомт sectionбүхий ofУЦС-ын aхөндлөн conventional hydroelectric damогтлол.]]
 
[[Image:Water turbine.svg|thumb|A typicalЕрдийн [[Waterусны turbineтурбин|turbineтурбин]] andба [[electricalцахилгаан generatorгенератор|generatorгенератор]]]]
 
===Голдиролын усан цахилгаан станц (боомтот ба голдиролын)===
===Conventional (dams)===
{{See also|List of conventional hydroelectric power stationsБоомт}}
 
Most hydroelectric power comes from the [[potential energy]] of [[dam]]med water driving a [[water turbine]] and [[electric generator|generator]]. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the [[head (hydraulic)|head]]. The amount of [[potential energy]] in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "[[penstock]]") delivers water to the turbine.<ref>[http://www.electricityforum.com/hydroelectricity.html Hydro Electricity Explained]</ref>
 
===Усан цэнэгт усан цахилгаан станц===
===Pumped-storage===
{{Main|Усан цэнэгт усан цахилгаан станц}}
{{Main|Pumped-storage hydroelectricity}}
{{See also|Усан цэнэгт усан цахилгаан станцын жагсаалт}}
{{See also|List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations}}
 
This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between [[reservoir (water)|reservoirs]] at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale [[grid energy storage]] and improve the daily [[capacity factor]] of the generation system. Pumped storage is not an energy source, and appears as a negative number in listings.<ref>[http://thesouthslope.com/content/pumped-storage-explained Pumped Storage, Explained]</ref>
 
===Деривацийн усан цахилгаан станц===
===Run of the river===
{{Main|Деривацийн усан цахилгаан станц}}
{{Main|Run of the river hydroelectricity}}
{{See also|Деривацийн усан цахилгаан станцын жагсаалт}}
{{See also|List of run-of-the-river hydroelectric power stations}}
 
Run of the river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 MW (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available).<!--total use in 2011 was 3841 billion kWh from Annual Energy Outlook http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/ --><ref>[http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/01/run-of-the-river-hydropower-goes-with-the-flow Run-of-the-River Hydropower Goes With the Flow]</ref>
 
===Түрлэгийн усан цахилгаан станц===
===Tide===
{{Main|Түрлэгийн усан цахилгаан станц}}
{{Main|Tide power}}
{{See also|Түрэгийн усан цахилгаан станцын жагсаалт}}
{{See also|List of tidal power stations}}
 
A [[tidal power]] station makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be [[Dispatchable generation|dispatchable]] to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's [[kinetic energy]] or undammed sources such as undershot [[water wheel|waterwheels]]. Tidal power is viable in a relatively small number of locations around the world. In Great Britain, there are eight sites that could be developed, which